With the material abundance of society, urban construction is changing day by day, the living and production conditions of urban residents have been greatly improved, but it should not be avoided that the urban-rural gap is increasing, and the problems of agriculture, rural areas and farmers are receiving more and more attention. The Fifth Plenary Session of the 16th CPC Central Committee has made a major strategic decision to build a new socialist countryside.
Along with the continuous development of rural economy, the farmers’ requirements for living quality and the current concern of rural housing design contradict each other. Due to the lack of relevant design knowledge, farmers start building their houses when they build five designs. It is just a pattern of building houses according to the traditional size of openings and depths, which leads to unreasonable and unclear functional partitioning, poor living quality, serious pollution of living environment and serious energy consumption, so it is of urgent practical significance to think about and explore the design of rural houses.
Realizability of housing
According to the survey, farmers strongly desire to live in houses like those in the city, which are both clean and comfortable. In fact, it is often easier to build clean and comfortable houses in rural areas. The countryside has beautiful mountains and clear water, and farmers have land to design their housing according to their needs.
And, after the reform and opening up, farmers have further participated in production and joined the market through farming, and their economic conditions have become better and better. In rural areas, the labor and material costs of see-square are also cheaper. Therefore, it is not a difficult task to build a comfortable house in the countryside.
How to build a clean and comfortable home
The traditional building pattern in rural areas is four meters open and four meters deep, and the number of openings and depths are usually chosen according to the number of users and economic status. The advantage of building a house in this way is that the construction modulus is uniform, but it brings a series of problems: confusion in functional partitioning, lack of clean and comfortable living space, and so on. According to these problems, I have analyzed them one by one and give my personal opinion.
2.1 Housing design tradition, leading to functional confusion and unreasonable
The division of the foundation can no longer be done in the traditional way, but the column network should be set up according to the division of functions. The main space of rural housing contains living room, dining room, kitchen, bathroom and bedroom.
2.1.1 Living room and dining room
In rural areas, the gathering space is particularly important in the overall function because of the high number of visits between neighbors. The living room and dining room are generally combined into one, forming a multi-functional and rich sensational reception space. The family gathering during New Year’s Eve requires sufficient area for the living room and dining room, which need to be mutually penetrating and flowing, and cannot be completely separated, so that the family reunion can be joyful and meet the multi-level needs of modern farmers.
2.1.2 Kitchen, bathroom, livestock shed
The kitchen, bathroom and livestock shed are put together here because the functions between them are not reasonable and need to be improved greatly.
At present, the main sources of dyes for residents’ kitchens are firewood, crop straw, coal or biogas. Some residents tend to use firewood and straw as dyes to prepare food for livestock and poultry, while using coal or biogas for cooking. However, all these processes are carried out in one kitchen without a good smoke exhaust system, resulting in the kitchen with the dining room and even the whole house being sooty everywhere.
On the other hand, the bathroom has long been set up with the livestock nest, and is still the traditional dry latrine, usually without the corresponding sewage treatment measures, etc., resulting in a state of rudimentary facilities and poor sanitary conditions. Toilet and livestock in the same house, livestock shed in a long-term wet state, and even the entire residence into a wet and dirty smell situation.
In such a case, first, the shed and the stove for preparing food for livestock and poultry should be separated from the living space and set up in a separate house, connected to the residential space through a corridor, or directly independent of it.
Secondly, dry toilets are outlawed, and toilets are set up in the living space in imitation of urban houses, adjacent to bedrooms, integrating functions such as drowning, bathing and grooming, generally one on each of the first and second floors. Such a division completely separates the living space, toilet and livestock shed, which can avoid the influence of wood smoke on the residential space, and also make the toilet clean and convenient to use.
Bedroom arrangements suitable for rural residents are best placed on the second floor, separated from production, farming and reception, without losing the privacy of the rest space. The size of the bedroom is adjusted from the traditional 4 meters long by 4 meters wide to meet the size of modern furniture and to be more ergonomic so that users are more comfortable in it. Of course, for families with elderly people, it is better to place the elderly room on the first floor, in a place close to the bathroom and convenient to access.
2.1.4 Storage Room Traditional rural houses do not have a clear storage room, and there is no fixed place for farming tools and food, making the living space not as clean as urban housing.
2.1.4 Storage room
Traditional rural houses do not have a clear storage room, and there is no fixed place for farming tools and food, making the living space not as clean as urban houses.
Therefore, it is best to set up a storage room in rural housing, with clear and definite functions to achieve the purpose of storage, and also the owner can clearly find the required objects and improve efficiency. This way other functional spaces will also become very clean and tidy, each in its own way.
2.1.5 Sunshine dam
Due to the need for production, the sun-dam is essential, and most of the food harvested throughout the year needs to be dried in the sun-dam before it can be collected and integrated into the storage room. Generally, the drying dam should be designed outside the house, preferably close to the storage room.
In addition, sunbathing dams can be set up on the roof of the first or second floor according to the needs of the owner, so that rural residents can choose the appropriate sunbathing dam according to the type of crops.
2.2 Improving living quality and living environment
When building a rural house, people generally do not think that rural houses can be as clean and comfortable as villas with courtyards in the city.
In fact, it is not. Surrounded by green nature, green mountains and beautiful water, with local plants and materials, the countryside has the unique conditions to build a comfortable and beautiful villa.
In addition to the above-mentioned clarification of functions, there are other methods.
2.2.1 Remove the single traditional decoration mode, rural areas can also have the world popular decoration style.
Such as English rustic style, American country style, Chinese classical style, etc. It does not have to be luxurious and grand, but it can be beautiful and fashionable, clean and tidy, so that people feel more comfortable and warm to live in it. More designers are needed here to study how to combine these styles with rural houses and to control the cost.
2.2.2 The surrounding environment is richer and more beautiful.
In addition to sunbathing dams to meet production functions, it is also feasible to set up courtyards, gardens or water features in which to raise livestock and poultry, stack firewood and grass, and grow fruits and vegetables. And gardens and water features can beautify the environment, reduce the noise from the surrounding area, purify the air, and also escape the summer heat.
In summary, regarding the study of new rural housing, I started with an eye on the needs of the farmers around me. They urgently need clean, comfortable and warm housing that meets their living habits and satisfies all the required functions, and it is this kind of housing that I am thinking about, through the rationalization of functions, the diversification of decoration styles, and the effective use of sustainable energy to complete the housing scheme.
As a child from the countryside, growing up in this environment, I am deeply aware of the poor living environment in the countryside, and in the spirit of “exploring ways to improve the housing conditions and living environment of farmers”, I hope to help improve the quality of life and living in my hometown.
Along with the continuous development of rural economy, more and more rural construction has been gradually improving the spatial and functional requirements of houses, no longer just satisfying the status quo of “having a house”, which requires all parties involved in the wave of new rural construction to pay more attention to the new trends of future housing development and propose practical, more comfortable and practical housing This requires all parties involved in the new rural construction wave to pay more attention to the new trend of future housing development and propose practical and more comfortable and practical housing solutions.